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张维屏

清代诗人

ZHANGWEIPING(1780-1859NIAN),ZIZISHU,HAONANSHAN,YOUHAOSONGXINZI,WANHAOZHUHAILAOYU,GUANGDONGFANYU(JINGUANGDONGSHENGGUANGZHOUSHI)REN。JIAQINGJIUNIAN(1804NIAN)ZHONGJUREN,DAOGUANGERNIAN(1822NIAN)ZHONGJINSHI,YINYANJUANGUANCHANGHEIAN,YUDAOGUANGSHILIUNIAN(1836NIAN)CIGUANGUILI,YINJU“TINGSONGYUAN”,BIHUZHUSHU。

主要成就
[挑错/完善]

张维屏少时就有诗才,闻名乡里。鸦片战争爆发后,张维屏目睹英国对中国的野蛮侵略,激发了爱国热情,写出了歌颂三元里人民抗英斗争的《三元里》,赞扬陈连升、葛云飞、陈化成捐躯报国的《三将军歌》等。这些诗篇在当时流传很广,影响很大,成为鼓舞爱国主义的有力武器,在中国文学史上占有重要的地位,也是研究鸦片战争史的可贵资料。已故的著名文学家阿英(钱杏邨)曾称赞张维屏的这些诗是鸦片战争中“最具有灿烂不朽光辉”的“英雄史诗”。

ZHANGWEIPINGZAIJIAQING、DAOGUANGNIANJIANYISHIZHUCHENG,YUHUANGPEIFANG、TANJINGZHAOHAOCHENG“YUEDONGSANZI”。YAPIANZHANZHENGQIAN,TASHOUDAOSHITANQISUWENGFANGGANG、CENGYU DESHANGSHI,YOUYUXUANNANSHISHEZHONGCHENGYUANJIAOWANGCHANGCHOU,SHIPIANNEIRONGDADUOSHISHANSHUI、XIANQING、ZENGDA,JIAZAYIXIEZHUANGZHICUOTUODEGANKAI。ZHIYOUSHAOSHUFANYINGXIANSHIDEPIANZHANG。RU“TIJINYAOYAN”DE《XIANYAN》ZUSHIDENG,BAOLULELIXUTANLANDUHENDEMIANMU;《HUANGMEIDASHUIXING》、《CUIKE》DENG,BIAOXIANLEDUIRENMINJIKUDEGUANHUAI。YAPIANZHANZHENGQIJIAN,SHITASHIQINGZUIJIANGDESHIQI,XIEXIALE《SANJIANGJUNGE》、《JIANGHAI》、《SHUFEN》、《GUZUO》、《HAIMEN》、《YUQIAN》DENGYIXILIEAIGUOSHIPIAN,BIAOZHANGKANGZHAN,ZHICHITOUJIANG。TEBIESHI《SANYUANLI》,SHIZHEIYISHIQISHITANSHAOJIANDEGEYONGRENMINZIFAFANDIDOUZHENGDEJIAPIAN。

ZHANGWEIPINGRENWEI“SHIGUCHUYUXINGQING”(《CHENQINGDUANGONGSHIJIXU》),XIESHIDANGRUZAOWUZHIZIRAN。TADESHIYIMINGBAIXIAOCHANGDEYUYANXIEZHENQINGSHIJING,YUBAIMIAOBIMOZHONGYOUSHIJIANHANXUNINGLIAN。GULINCHANGYISHUOTA“JINGLIANYICHANG”(《SHEYINGLOUSHIHUA》JUANSHISAN)。TAYINXINSHIWURUSHI,RUXIEHUOLUNCHUAN、SHIJIEDITUDENG,BIAOXIANLEJINDAISHITUPOCHUANTONGTICAI、ZHANTUOSHIJINGDEQUXIANG。ZHANGWEIPINGGUWENYEYOUYIDINGCHENGJIU。YUNJINGCHENGYUTAWEI“LINGWAILIUZHONGTU”(《SONGYUNZIJUHAICHANGZHOU》SHIZHU)。TAPIPINGDANGSHIGUWENLIANGDABING,JI“CHENYAN”YU“YANGU”,TICHU“BUJUCHENGJIAN,BUYOUPIANYU,SUIGANERTONG,YINWUYIFU,RUFENGXINGSHUI,RUSHUIXINGDI”(《FUGONGDINGANSHERENSHU》)。TADEWENZHANGBUJUTIGE,SUIYIHUISA,RU《SHISHECHUANPIANYUNXINGCAOXU》JIUYUNSHENGFA,《SHIERSHISHANZHAIJI》YISHILILUN,DOUBIAOXIANCHU“YIXINGECHUANG”(XUYINGKUIPING《QINGSHI》YU)DETESE。

ZHANGWEIPINGZHUYOU《ZHANGNANSHANQUANJI》,HUIJISHIRENGEZHONGZHUSHUKEBEN。QIZHONG《SONGXINSHILVE》,YICHENG《SONGXINSHILU》,GONG10JI,SHIQIMENRENXUANQUANSHISHIZHIERSANERCHENG,WEIJINCHUANZHANGSHIZUIDUOZHIBEN。DAOGUANGMONIANKEWENYOU《SONGXINWENCHAO》10JUAN、《SONGXINPIANTIWENCHAO》。SHANGYOU《TINGSONGLUSHIHUA》、《YITANLU》、《GUOCHAOSHIRENZHENGLVE》DENGYOUGUANTANSHIJIWENXIANZHANGGUZHUZUO。

人物生平
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ZHANGWEIPING(1780~1859NIAN10YUE13RI) QINGDAIGUANYUAN、SHIREN。ZIZISHU,HAONANSHAN,YINPIAISONG,YOUHAOSONGXINZI,WANNIANYEZISHUZHUHAILAOYU、CHANGXIAYUZHE,GUANGDONGFANYUREN。JIAQINGJIUNIAN(1804)ZHONGJU,DAOGUANGERNIAN(1822)CHENGJINSHI。CIHOUZAIHUBEI、JIANGXIRENZHOUXIANDIFANGGUAN,YIDUSHULINANKANGZHIFU。WEIGUANQINGLIAN,ZHONGYINBUNAIGUANCHANGDEFUBAI,YUDAOGUANGSHILIUNIAN(1836)CIGUANGUILI。

QIFUCENGRENSIHUIXIANXUEXUNDAO,ZHANGWEIPINGCONGXIAOJIESHOUJIATINGJIAOYU,SHAONIANSHIJIYINENGSHIMING,13SUISHIMINGLIEFANYUXIANTONGZISHIBANGSHOU,ZHIXIANWUZHENGDAZANSHANGQICAIHUA,QU《MAOSHIXU》“NANSHANYOUTAI,LEDEXIANYE”ZHIYICIMING“NANSHAN”。ZHANGWEIPINGYUJIAQINGJIUNIAN(1804)ZHONGJUHOU,SHOUCIJINJINGFUKAO,SHITANDAJIAWENGFANGGANGYUEQISHIZUO,JINGHU“SHITANDADIZHIYI!”ZAIDUFUSHISHI,WENGFANGGANGWEITAHEHUANGPEIFANG、TANJINGZHAODENGSANWEILINGNANSHIRENZHISHIJIZUO《YUEDONGSANZISHIXU》,CONGCI“YUEDONGSANZI”DEWENMINGDEDAOXIANYANG。ZHANGWEIPINGCENGYULINBOTONG、HUANGQIAOSONG、TANJINGZHAO、LIANGPEILAN、HUANGPEIFANG、KONGJIXUNZHUYUNQUANSHANGUANYUBAIYUNSHAN,RENCHENG“QIZISHITAN。”

道光二年(1822),43岁的张维屏四度会试终成进士,署湖北黄梅知县。他勤政爱民,莅任第二年夏天,江水决堤,他亲自乘小舟勘察水情,散发干粮赈灾,竟被洪水冲走,幸挂树梢而不死。老百姓为之歌曰:“犯急湍,官救民,神救官。”道光四年(1824)调任广济知县,他不愿向百姓征收漕粮,引疾求退未成,调署襄樊同知。过三年,返粤丁父忧,次年迁家回清水濠故里。道光九年(1829),他被聘为学海堂学长。居家数年,致力于教育事业。道光十年(1830),张维屏丁忧服阕,同林则徐、黄爵滋、龚自珍等在北京结“宣南诗社”。后又出任了几年的地方官员,但他最终看透官场腐败,产生“一官无补苍生,不如归去”的念头,终在道光十六年(1836)五十七岁时告病辞归广州,赁居河南花地潘氏别业东园。他将所筑小园名为“听松园”,于松涛间悉心著述讲学、游园吟诗。道光十九年(1839)林则徐在广东禁烟时专门拜访,征求禁烟对策。鸦片战争爆发后,张维屏写下反对外敌侵略、赞颂人民抗战的不朽诗篇,其中《三元里》和《三将军歌》最为著名。咸丰九年(1859)九月十八日(10月13日)病逝于清水濠,葬于广州城东北银坑岭,临终留下时人争传之绝笔:

YANYUNGUOYANZONGCHENGKONG,LIUDEXINJINGZHIMOZHONG。SHUWEIKEWANRENYISHI,BAXUNHUISHOUXICONGCONG。

偶堕尘寰八十年,飘然归去在罗天。松溪花棣常游处,或者诗魂系船。

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