北京pk10现场开奖直播

CHUANBOGUOXUEJINGDIAN

YANGYUHUAXIAERNV

吴伟业

清代诗人

吴伟业(1609~1672)字骏公,号梅村,别署鹿樵生、灌隐主人、大云道人,世居江苏昆山,祖父始迁江苏太仓,汉族,江苏太仓人,崇祯进士。明末清初著名诗人,与钱谦益、龚鼎孳并称“江左三大家”,又为娄东诗派开创者。长于七言歌行,初学“长庆体”,后自成新吟,后人称之为“梅村体”。

吴伟业诗词作品
主要成就
[挑错/完善]

吴伟业北京pk10现场开奖直播他一生写诗千余首。著有《梅村家藏稿》五十八卷,《梅村诗馀》,传奇《秣陵春》,杂剧《通天台》、《临春阁》,史乘《绥寇纪略》,《春秋地理志》等。

吴伟业与钱谦益、龚鼎孳并称“江左三大家”,又为娄东诗派开创者。诗以宗法唐人为主,兼取宋代苏轼陆游。《四库全书总目》评论说:“其少作大抵才华艳发,吐纳风流,有藻思绮合、清丽芊眠之致。及乎遭逢丧乱,阅历兴亡,激楚苍凉,风骨弥为遒上。”颇能概括其特色及前后变化。

人物生平
[请记住我们 国学梦 75msc68.com]

清初有影响的诗人,史推“江左三大家”——钱谦益、吴伟业和龚鼎孳,而真正有资格与“才名满天下”(钱泳《履园丛话》)的诗坛领袖钱谦益并列的,只有吴伟业。钱氏兼宗唐宋,吴氏学唐,此后清代的各种诗派,大抵不出这二人的门户,足见二人对清代诗歌影响之深远。

钱谦益极口赞誉吴伟业的诗才,曾用“以锦绣为肝肠,以珠玉为咳唾”(《梅村诗集》钱谦益序)来形容吴伟业诗歌之风华绮丽。康熙帝亲制御诗《题〈吴梅村集〉》:“梅村一卷足风流,往复搜寻未肯休。秋水精神香雪句,西昆幽思杜陵愁。裁成蜀锦应惭丽,细比春蚕好更抽。寒夜北京pk10现场开奖直播短檠相对处,几多诗兴为君收。”对吴伟业诗歌给予恰当中肯的高度评价,肯定了吴伟业诗歌地位。

北京pk10现场开奖直播YI、“KUBEIRENHUWUJIJIU,ZITIYUANSHIZUOSHIREN”——ZONGYUANHAN《TIMEICUNXIANSHENGXIEZHAO》

吴伟业明神宗万历三十七年(1609年)五月二十日出生于江苏太仓的一个读书人家中。吴伟业出生时,他母亲梦见一位身穿红衣的使者送来会元坊,因此,父母对小伟业寄寓了深切的期望。伟业七岁开始读家塾,十四岁能属文。著名学者张溥见到伟业的文章,感叹地说:“文章正印在此子矣!”于是收留吴伟业在门下受业,传授通今博古之学。

北京pk10现场开奖直播TIANQISINIAN(1624NIAN),ZHANGPUCHUANGLIFUSHE,WUWEIYEJICHENGRUSHIDIZI,MINGZHONGFUSHE。CHONGZHENSINIAN(1631NIAN),WUWEIYECANJIAHUISHI,ZAODAOWUCHENGDANGRENDEWUXIAN,BEIZHIKONGXUNSIWUBI,XINGKUICHONGZHENDIDIAOYUEHUIYUANSHIJUAN,QINZIZAIWUWEIYEDESHIJUANSHANGPISHANG“ZHENGDABOYA,ZUSHIGUIMI”,CAIDEYIGAOZHONGYIJIADIERMING(BANGYAN),SHOUHANLINYUANBIANXIU。TONGNIAN,WUWEIYEFENGZHIGUIQUXIANSHICHENGSHI,RONGJIYISHI。CHENJIRUMIAOHUIDANGSHISHENGJINGSHUO:“NIANSHAOZHUYIMASHANGLANG,CHUNWEIDIYIXINGMINGXIANG。NIJINTIEZHUHUANGJINWU,ZHONGYURENGUIBAIYUTANG。”(《SONGWUBANGYANFENGZHIGUIQUSHI》)ZHANGPUYEGAOXINGDIKUAJIANGZIJIDEDIZI:“RENJIANHAOSHIJIEGUIZI,RIXIAQINGMINGBUKUIRU。”(《SONGWUJUNGONGGUIQUSHI》)

崇祯十年(1637年),吴伟业迁东宫讲读官,与温体仁党斗争剧烈。崇祯十一年(1638年),崇祯帝临场视学,观看皇子就学情况,亲问《尚书》大义,讲毕,获赐“龙团月片,甘瓜脆李”。十二年(1639年),再迁南京国子监司业。十三年(1640年),升中允谕德(太子官属)。十六年(1643年),升庶子。这段时期,吴伟业仕途之上春风得意,踌躇满志,而这一切与崇祯帝对他的殊遇是密切相关的,他从内心感激崇祯帝。

CHONGZHENSHIQINIAN(1644NIAN),LIZICHENGNONGMINQIYIJUNGONGRUBEIJING,CHONGZHENDIZIYIMEISHAN,“XIANSHENGLIJU,WENXIN,HAOTONGYUZIYI,WEIJIARENSUOJUE。ZHUTAISHURENBAOCHIQIYUE:‘ERSI,QIRULAORENHE?’NAIYI”(GUSHISHI《MEICUNXIANSHENGNIANPU》)。CHUYUDUIMINGWANGCHAODEYILIAN,TEBIESHIDUICHONGZHENDIDEGANENXINLI,WUWEIYEZAIQIBIANZHUANDE《SUIKOUJILVE》ZHONG,JILIDIHUI、GONGJILIZICHENG、ZHANGXIANZHONGQIYI。

北京pk10现场开奖直播HONGGUANGYUANNIAN(1645NIAN),NANJINGZHENGFUZHAOBAIWUWEIYEWEISHAOZHANSHI,JUGUANJINLIANGYUE,YINYUMASHIYING、RUANDACHENGDENGQUANCHENBUHE,XIEGUANGUILI。 DUIQINGCHAOZHENGQUAN,WUWEIYEKAISHICAIQUDESHIXIAOJIDEBUHEZUODETAIDU,ZAIMINGWANGYIHOUZHANGDASHINIANDESHIJIANNEI,YIZHIPINGJUXIANGLI,BAOCHIMINGJIE。

SHUNZHISHINIAN(1653NIAN),“ZHAOJUYIYI,JIANTANJIAOSHANG”,YOUSIZAISANDUNBI,WUWEIYEKONGCIZAISI,ERQINLIUTIXIANGQIU,BUDEYINAIYINGZHAORUDOU,SHOUMISHUYUANSHIJIANG,XUNSHENGGUOZIJIANJIJIU。SHUNZHISHISINIAN(1657NIAN),WUWEIYEJIEKOUSHENTIYOUBING,CIGUANQINGJIAGUILI。

DUIZHEIDUANLISHI,WUWEIYENEIXINSHENGANCHIRU,WANNIANYISHIQINGWEI“WUJINPINGSHENG”ZHIHANSHI。MINGUOJIANGZHICHAI《DOUMENSHIXIAOLU》ZAI:“XIWUMEICUNGONGZHAN,CHANGYUXISHANGGUANLINGRENYAN《LANKESHAN》(JI《MAICHENXIUQI》),MOULINGYUKEBAISHI,DASHENGDUIMEICUNYUE:‘XINGZHUDEYOUSHENKUIFUYUNI?’MEICUNWEIZHIMIANCHI。”TADEHAOYOUHOUFANGYU(CHAOZONG)ZAISHUNZHIJIUNIAN(1652NIAN)YISHUXIANGYUE,ZHONGYINLINQUAN,DUMENBUTONG。HOUHOUFANGYUQUSHI,WUWEIYEZAI《HUAIGUJIANDIAOHOUCHAOZONGSHI》ZHONGWANFENBEITONGDIZIZE:“SISHENGZONGFUHOUYINGNUO,YUDIJIAOJIANGLEIMANZUN。”

北京pk10现场开奖直播KANGXISHINIAN(1671NIAN)XIAJI,JIANGNANKURE,WUWEIYE“JIUJIDAZUO,TANSHENGRUJU,XIONGDONGRUOCHU”(《ZHIMAOPIJIANGSHU》),TAYUGANZIJIBUJIUYURENSHI,BIANLIUXIAYIYAN:“WUYISHENGZAOJIWANSHIYOUWEI,WUYIKEBULIJIANXIAN,WUYIJINGBUCHANGJIANXIN,SHIWEITIANXIADAKUREN。WUSIHOU,LIANYISENGZHUANG,ZANGWUYUDENGWEILINGYANXIANGJIN,MUQIANLIYIYUANSHI,RI:‘SHIRENWUMEICUNZHIMU’。”ZHEIYINIANDESHIERYUEERSHISIRI,YIDAIDASHIRENWUWEIYEBINGSHI,ZANGYUSUZHOUYUANMUSHANZHIBEI。

北京pk10现场开奖直播YOUCIKANLAI,WUWEIYEWANNIANSHENWEIZIJISHIQINGSHIJIEERTONGHUI,TABUYUANBIERENYIRUQINGGUANZHI“JIJIU”XIANGCHENG,ERZIXUWEIPUPUTONGTONGYI“SHIREN”。《ZHONGGUOWENXUEJIADACIDIAN》“WUWEIYE”TIAORENWEI:“《QINGSHILIECHUAN》LIE(WUWEIYE)RU‘ERCHENCHUAN’ZHONG,SHUSHUBUDANG。”TAYUQIANQIANYIDESHIJIEJIANGQINGZAIBENZHISHANGSHIYOUQUBIEDE,HOUREN“KUBEIRENHUWUJIJIU,ZITIYUANSHIZUOSHIREN”DEPINGYIKEWEISHENDEWEIYEZHIXIN。

二、“萧瑟真怜庾子山,空余词赋动江关”——施补华《题梅村先生像》

吴伟业的文学才能是多方面的。他首先是诗人。他的诗歌专模唐人格调,辞藻华丽,长于七言歌行,尤工关于时事之古诗,这一方面可以举《永和宫词》、《圆圆曲》、《楚两生歌》为其代表作品,与唐代白居易之《长恨歌》、《琵琶行》颇有同调之感。因此,后人以“诗史”评价吴伟业诗歌,说他的诗歌是“诗中有史”。吴伟业的诗歌创作以明亡为界,分为两个阶段。前一阶段的诗作,才华艳发,吐纳风流;后一阶段的诗作,风格一变,苍凉萧瑟,晚年学庾信,风骨愈上。他的诗歌收集在《梅村诗集》中。

北京pk10现场开奖直播CHUSHIGECHUANGZUOWAI,WUWEIYEHAISHIQINGCHUZHONGYAODEXIJUJIA,DAIBIAOZUOPINYOU《MOLINGCHUN》、《TONGTIANTAI》、《LINCHUNGE》DENG。TAXIWANGTONGGUOXIJUCHUANGZUOLAIBIAODAZIJIDE“SHANGXINTONGKUZHIDIAO”,ZHENGRUTAZIJISUOSHUO:“YICHANGSANTAN,YUSHIHUZUOYAN,SHIBIANYE,GUOYOUTUOERRANYE?GUOWUTUOERRANYE?YUYIBUDEERZHIYE。”(《〈MOLINGCHUN〉XU》)TADEXIJUFANGMIANDECHUANGZUOSHOUJIZAI《LEFUZAJU》ZHONG。

SHANGWENSHUOGUO,WUWEIYE“ZHUANJICHONGZHENSHILIUKOUQIYUMINGWANG”ZHUAN《SUIKOUJILVE》,QUANSHUFENSHIERPIAN,MEIPIANYISANZIWEIBIAOTI。ZHEIBENZHUANZHUSHIZHANZAIMINGWANGCHAOYIFANGGONGJIMINGMONONGMINQIYIDE。YINWEISHIZHANZAIWANGMINGDELICHANGZHISHANG,BULUNCHUYUHEZHONGYUANYIN,ZUIZHONGHAISHICHUFANLEQINGCHAOTONGZHIZHEDEJIHUI,JIGOUYICHANGWENZIYU。WUWEIYEDEXUESHUZHUANZHUHAIYOU《CHUNQIUSHIZUZHI》、《CHUNQIUDILIZHI》、《FUSHEJISHI》DENG。

北京pk10现场开奖直播WUWEIYEDEWENZHANGQINGXIUJUANLI,ZHIDEZHUYI。TACENGSHUO“PINGSHENGYIWENZHANGYOUPENGWEIXINGMING”,ZUJIANTADUIWENZHANGDEZHONGSHIHEZIFU。《MEICUNJIAZANGGAO》SHOUJITADEGELEIWENZHANG,GONGCHENGSANSHIWUJUAN。LINGWAI,WUWEIYEHAISHIQINGCHUYOUMINGDEHUAJIA,YOUZUOPINCHUANSHI。

SAN、“JUSHANGXINZHIBAO,ZOUWANGGUOZHIYIN”——WANGSHITONG《〈MEICUNJIAZANGGAO〉XU》

《四库提要》论吴伟业诗歌云:“格律本乎四杰,而情韵为深;叙述类乎香山,而风华为胜。”风华绮丽是吴伟业诗歌的突出特点,例如《田园杂兴八首》(其四):

ZHUWUHUATANGUOKEXI,GUANQICAIBAYANSONGFEI。DAORENSHISHANGZHIYIJIU,YUFUJITOUE^NAIWEI。CHAOMEIQIUTIANGUWUYUAN,GEHANSHANHEDUANHONGYUAN。TINGGAOMULUOHUANGZHOUMENG,JIANGHAIPIANXIANYIYUYI。

吴伟业诗歌的又一特点,是在一定程度上现实地记叙了明清之际民不聊生、伤乱流离的社会生活,善于叙事,抒情北京pk10现场开奖直播性强。如《避乱六首》(其六):

XIAOQIHUABINGZHI,GECHUANBOSHIQIAO。CAOCAOSHISHUREN,DENGANGUCUNLAO,JIESHUSUIFEICHANG,LINGLUOWUGONGDAO。SHIQIWOSHIWENG,NUSESHUWULIAO。BUZHIHEJIANGJUN,DAOCITANXIAOYAO?GUANJUNXICUIZU,XIALINGYANQIUHAO,JINDAOZHENGFUKU,BUXIGENGRENLAO。JIANGDONGJINSANGBAI,QIANLIKONGXIAOTIAO。CIDICUNRENJU,BUZURONGJINGMAO。JUNJIANDADIYONG,MODANJINGWUCAO。

ZAIYOUDALIANGDEZUOPIN,ZEBIAODALEJUANHUAIGUGUOZHISHENQING,RENSHICANGLIANGZHIBEIFEN,RU《GUOHUAIYINYOUGAN》:

登高怅望八公山,琪树丹崖未可攀。莫想阴符遇黄石,好将鸿宝驻朱颜。浮生所欠只一死,尘世无由识九还。我本淮王旧鸡犬,不随仙去落人间。

北京pk10现场开奖直播WANNIANZUOPIN,ZEPIANZHONGYUBIAODAYIMINZHITONG、SHIJIEZHIHEN,QIWANDONGREN。RU《HEXINLANG·YOUGAN》:

WANSHICUIHUAFA。LUNGONGSHENG、TIANNIANJINGYAO,GAOMINGNANMEI。WUBINGNANJIANGYIYAOZHI,GENGGENGXIONGZHONGREXUE。DAISAXIANGXIFENGCANYUE。POUQUEXINGANJINZHIDI,WENHUATUOJIEWOCHANGQIANJIE。ZHUIWANGSHI,BEIQIYAN。 GURENKANGKAIDUOQIJIE,WEIDANGNIAN、CHENYINBUDUAN,CAOJIANTOUHUO。AIJIUMEITOUGUAPENBI,JINRIXUNANJUEJUE。ZAOHUANKU,ZHONGLAIQIANDIE。TUOXIQINUFEIYISHI,JINGYIQIANBUZHI,HEXUSHUO,RENSHISHI,JIWANQUE。

WUWEIYESIQIANCENGSHUO:“WUSHISUIBUZUYICHUANYUAN,ERSHIZHONGZHIJITUOLIANGKU,HOUSHIDUWUSHIERZHIWUXIN,ZEWUBUSIYI。”TASUOSHUO“JITUOLIANGKU”,YISHIZHITADESHIGEDUOYINGSHESHISHI,ZHISHISHEYUQINGTINGZHIWEIBUGANZHIYAN,SUOWEI“SHISHI”ZHIYIJIZHICI;ERSHIZHITAYISHIGESHUFAZIJISHIJIEZHIHEN,XIWANGHOURENNENGTONGGUODUTADESHIGEERLEJIETADENEIXINTONGKU,BINGTICHATAFUZAMAODUNDEXINQING,JINERHUANQIRENMENDEAIGUOREQING。

用户评论
挥一挥手 不带走一片云彩

WUWEIYEJIANJIE - WUMEICUN - WUWEIYEDESHICIMINGJU

关于本站免责声明站点地图

北京pk10现场开奖直播Copyright © 2016-2020 75msc68.com All Rights Reserved. GUOXUEMENG BANQUANSUOYOU